Letter to Editor Emergency medicine
1. Interleukin-6 blockade and cytokine release syndrome in coronavirus disease of 2019: Is that a lot? Thoughts from the emergency department

Sadaf Sheikh

Volume 7, Issue 2 , Summer and Autumn 2021, Pages 80-81

Abstract
  Interleukin-6 is pro-inflammatory cytokine which plays a role in cytokine storm and brought into notice with corona virus disease of 2019. Lymphopenia and dysregulated immune response were seen in the critically ill patients of corona virus disease of 2019. IL-6 inhibitors were proposed as a treatment ...  Read More

Review Article Clinical Toxicology
2. Ranking the acute poisoning etiologies in Iran: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Saeedeh Derhami; Ehsan Bolvardi; Reza Akhavan; Mahdi Foroughian; Behzad Shahi; Arman Hakemi; Zhila Rahmanian; Samaneh Abiri

Volume 7, Issue 2 , Summer and Autumn 2021, Pages 82-87

Abstract
  Objective: Acute poisoning is a major health problem and one of the most common causes of emergency visits worldwide. Since most poisoning subjects present with a decreased level of consciousness and due to unreliable disease history, recognizing the etiological cause of the poisoning represents a critical ...  Read More

Original Article Emergency medicine
3. Diagnostic relevance of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin in early detection of acute kidney injury

Madhusudhan Mahadevaiah; Murali Mohan Nidasale Thimmaiah; Venu Sashank Yerramsetty; Jeevan Kumar; Ranjith Kumar

Volume 7, Issue 2 , Summer and Autumn 2021, Pages 88-92

Abstract
  Objective: To evaluate the predictive and diagnostic accuracy of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) in acute kidney injury (AKI) and also to predict the renal replacement therapy (RRT) using NGAL as a marker.Methods: This prospective study was conducted among the patients admitted to intensive ...  Read More

Original Article Clinical Toxicology
4. Delirium treatment in intoxicated patients in ICU: A randomized, double-blind clinical trial

Javad Mesbahi; Shahin Shadnia; Hossein Hassanian-Moghaddam; Nasim Zamani; Peyman Erfan Talab Evini; Delara Hazegh Fetratjoo; Alireza Kargar; Mitra Rahimi

Volume 7, Issue 2 , Summer and Autumn 2021, Pages 93-96

Abstract
  Objective: Delirium is one of the most common complications in patients admittedto intensive care units (ICUs). Delirium is a definite cause for more extended hospitalstays, higher mortality rates, and possibly persistent cognitive decline in the future.Antipsychotics have been frequently evaluated as ...  Read More

Original Article Emergency medicine
5. The effect of a short ultrasound training course on the performance of emergency medical technicians in terms of using extended-focused assessment with sonography in trauma (E-FAST) in the pre-hospital setting

Anita Sabzghabaei; Fariba Farahi; Masoud Ghanbari Boroujeni; Hamidreza Hatamabadi

Volume 7, Issue 2 , Summer and Autumn 2021, Pages 97-100

Abstract
  Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of an ultrasound training course on the performance of emergency medical technicians (EMTs) in terms of using extended-focused assessment with sonography in trauma (E-FAST) in the pre-hospital setting.Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, ...  Read More

Original Article Emergency medicine
6. Clinical competencies of emergency medical services paramedics in responding to emergency conditions using Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) in Guilan

Arash Amirrafiei; Seyyed Mahdi Zia Ziabari; Fatemeh Haghshenas-Bakerdar; Ehsan Kazemnejad-Leili; Payman Asadi

Volume 7, Issue 2 , Summer and Autumn 2021, Pages 101-105

Abstract
  Objective: Evaluating the abilities of emergency medical services (EMS) staff who are in the frontline of the diseases could be an excellent reflection of the accuracy of curriculum both before and after graduation. This study was done to determine the clinical competencies of Guilan EMS staff in responding ...  Read More

Original Article Emergency medicine
7. Exploring nurses’ knowledge of basic life support guideline of American Heart Association: a local study

Payman Asadi; Seyyed Mahdi Zia Ziabari; Vahid Monsef-Kasmaei1

Volume 7, Issue 2 , Summer and Autumn 2021, Pages 106-110

Abstract
  Objective: Awareness of the changes concerning the clinical guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is essential for nurses. This study aimed at assessing the nurses’ knowledge of the 2015 American Heart Association basic life support guideline algorithm. Methods: In a cross-sectional ...  Read More

Original Article Emergency medicine
8. Emergency laparotomy at district hospitals in a developing nation: a review of indications and outcomes of treatment

Aloysius Ugwu-Olisa Ogbuanya; Nonyelum Benedett Ugwu

Volume 7, Issue 2 , Summer and Autumn 2021, Pages 111-117

Abstract
  Objective: Recently, emergency and essential surgical and anesthesia care at district hospitals is increasingly gaining recognition as a critical, though neglected element of health care system in Africa and other developing nations. Emergency laparotomy is a versatile procedure that can cure a great ...  Read More

Original Article Emergency medicine
9. An overview of the prevalence and pattern of maxillofacial trauma in the south of Iran

Mahnaz Yadollahi; sarina sahmeddini

Volume 7, Issue 2 , Summer and Autumn 2021, Pages 118-122

Abstract
  Objective: The purpose of the current study is to determine the prevalence and pattern of maxillofacial trauma.Methods: This is a cross sectional study of maxillofacial trauma cases treated in the referral trauma center of south of Iran. Data of 264 patients were extracted from patients’ records ...  Read More

Original Article Clinical Toxicology
10. Pharmacoligical characterization of the iranian Cerastes cerastes gasperettii (Reptilia: Ophidia: Viperidae) venom

Sasan Zaeri; Zohre Aghaei; Navid Reza Mashayekhi; Ali Salemi; Ramin Seyedian

Volume 7, Issue 2 , Summer and Autumn 2021, Pages 123-126

Abstract
  Objective: Snake envenomation is common in tropical and subtropical countries of the Middle East areas including Iran. Cerastes cerastes gasperettii is a dangerous snake living in southwestern provinces of Iran. It causes massive edema at the bite site and coagulopathy leading to death if untreated. ...  Read More

Perspective Emergency medicine
11. How to deal with the mental health consequences of global health emergencies? A nutshell of telemental health services and its requirements

Nazanin Jannati; Vahid Yazdi-Feyzabadi; Roghayeh Ershad Sarab; Simin Salehinejad

Volume 7, Issue 2 , Summer and Autumn 2021, Pages 127-129

Abstract
  The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic is a global health crisis of our time. The mental health and wellbeing of whole societies have been severely impacted by this crisis and are a priority to be addressed urgently. In addition, the COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted or halted critical mental health ...  Read More

Case Report Emergency medicine
12. A case of cardiac arrest following Brugada syndrome as a rare disorder

Seyed Reza Habibzadeh; Samaneh Abiri; Saeed Barazandehpour; Mohammad Javad Zarei; Mahdi Foroughian; Hamideh Akbari; Navid Kalani; Esmaeil Rayat Dost; Seyed Hamed Hojati

Volume 7, Issue 2 , Summer and Autumn 2021, Pages 130-132

Abstract
  Objective: Brugada syndrome (BrS) is a disorder in which the electrical activity in the heart is abnormal and affects individuals with cardiac dysrhythmia. In the present study, we introduce a case diagnosed with BrS, admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) and received treatments following sudden cardiac ...  Read More

Case Report Emergency medicine
13. Medical errors during COVID-19 pandemic: the role of emergency medicine

Shaghayegh Rahmani; Kosar Deldar; Sara Hemati Ali

Volume 7, Issue 2 , Summer and Autumn 2021, Pages 133-134

Abstract
  Objective: Nowadays, many countries all over the world are involved with COVID-19 and the number of new cases and deaths are on a rise. The role of emergency medicine and physician-led triage is important in this period. We report some near missed cases in our academic center related to this pandemic.Case ...  Read More

Case Report Emergency medicine
14. Oral ingestion of lidocaine for suicide: A case report

Maryam Adimolmasali; Ali Teimouri; Hamid Reza Mokhtar; Mahdi Foroughian; Parvin Zohoorian Sadr; Mohammad Hossien Kamaloddini

Volume 7, Issue 2 , Summer and Autumn 2021, Pages 135-136

Abstract
  Systemic toxemia with topical anesthetics could be fatal due to the use of anesthetics in various ways (oral, intravenous, intramuscular, or subcutaneous). Nowadays, topical anesthetics are used in inpatient and outpatient treatments. Despite its widespread usage, many physicians are not fully aware ...  Read More

Case Report Emergency medicine
15. Penetrating trans-abdominal bamboo stick injury: An unusual case report

Lalit Kumar Bansal; Raja Bhanukiran; Poras Chaudhary; Arun Kumar Gupta

Volume 7, Issue 2 , Summer and Autumn 2021, Pages 137-139

Abstract
  Objective: objectives: Penetrating abdominal trauma secondary to bamboo stick injury is a rare entity in the developed world. Most of such kind of trans abdominal penetrating bamboo stick injury is associated with multiple solid and hollow viscus injuries. In developing countries like India, where nearly ...  Read More

Case Report Emergency medicine
16. Midwakh (pipe) and seizure: The overlooked link

Mustafa Mahmood Eid

Volume 7, Issue 2 , Summer and Autumn 2021, Pages 140-142

Abstract
  Objective: Numerous drugs and medications from various pharmacological classes can lead to seizures as an unwanted side effect. Midwakh is a pipe commonly used to smoke tobacco blend in small quantities. Midwakh use is increasing, especially among young people. Case Presentation: A 17-year-old patient ...  Read More

Case Report Infectious disease
17. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome due to COVID-19

Maythem Abdulhassan Al Kaisy

Volume 7, Issue 2 , Summer and Autumn 2021, Pages 143-145

Abstract
  Objective: During the late 2019, a group of patients had unexplained chest infections in Wuhan which turned out to be the new pandemic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). New neurological symptoms have been reported in COVID-19 patients. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a new neurological ...  Read More

Case Report Emergency medicine
18. How much can a small bursa stretch? A curious case of massive superficial infrapatellar bursitis in the emergency departme

Ganesh Singh Dharmshaktu; Tanuja Pangtey

Volume 7, Issue 2 , Summer and Autumn 2021, Pages 146-148

Abstract
  Introduction: Inflammation of the infrapatellar bursa results from various causes like trauma, infection and overuse. Superficial skin or soft tissue infection can also lead to occasional septic bursitis. Infrapatellar bursa has two parts, superficial and deep bursae. Superficial bursa inflammation reactive ...  Read More