Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Emergency Medicine, Shohadaye Tajrish Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Emergency Medicine, Shahid Beheshti Hospital, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Anzali, Iran

3 Faculty of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti Hospital,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences,Tehran, Iran

4 Faculty of medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt


Objective: One of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) named as ketorolac is frequently used to relieve acute pain. Current study was conducted with the aim of ketorolac efficacy measurement as a pain killer agent for controlling the primary headache in emergency departments.
Methods: In this study, we enrolled 50 patients with primary headache who received 60 mg ketorolac intravenously as a slow infusion in about 10 minutes. Pain scores were evaluated with visual analog scale (VAS) on arrival and also 1 hour and 2 hours after ketorolac infusion. Statistical analysis was performed on collected data by using Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney tests to assess the differences in VAS pain scores. Results: Decreasing the VAS more than 3 points from the arrival until 1 hour (P < 0.001), and more than 5 points from the arrival until 2 hours after ketorolac administration (P < 0.001) were seen. Those with history of analgesic use before admission in emergency department in comparison with the others did not accompany with more decline in pain score after 1 hour (P = 0.34) or 2 hours (P = 0.92).
Conclusion: It seems that ketorolac is assured, safe and well tolerated agent for pain control in patients presented with primary headache to the emergency departments. Based on the results achieved in this study, ketorolac illustrates its perceptible effects within 1 hour after administration that even more prominent after 2 hours.


Main Subjects

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