Document Type : Original Article
1 Department of Medicine, Dhaka Medical College, Dhaka, Bangladesh
2 Neurology Department, Dhaka Medical College, Dhaka, Bangladesh
3 Dhaka Medical College, Dhaka, Bangladesh
4 Nuffield Department of Medicine, Centre for Tropical Medicine and Global Health, University of Oxford, UK
Objective: The scale of the problem of poisoning is enormous hence clinico epidemiological spectrum of all poisoning cases need to explore to generate the management tool.
Methods: This prospective study was done at two medicine units (Unit 5 and 10) of Dhaka Medical College Hospital from July to December 2010 where all poisoning cases were seen. A total of 2890 patients were admitted out of which 600 were taken into the study.
Results: Among the poisoning cases 29% were pesticide, 27% travel related poisoning, and 20% benzodiazepine. 70% of poisoning occurred below 30 years of age and male: female ratio was 3:2. Incidence of poisoning was highest among students (31%) and housewives (25%). Majority of the patients were from urban area (76%) and most common intention was suicidal (66%). Familial disharmony was the prime cause (63%) behind poisoning. 42% cases got admitted between 5-8 hours of poisoning and more than 80% patients were admitted in the hospital directly without getting any first aid anywhere. Sixty-eight percent had Glasgow coma scale (GCS) score above 10 during admission. Cardinal clinical features of poisoning were nausea/vomiting (63%), drowsiness (56%), miosis (31%). Seventy percent patients were treated with only general and supportive treatment and specific antidotes were used in 30% cases. Case fatality for pesticide, benzodiazepine/anti-psychotic, rodenticide and snake bite was 6.9%, 2.2%, 8.3% and 3.3% respectively.
Conclusion: To assess the magnitude of problem, awareness of the public for prevention, immediate first aid measures and quick hospital admission is crucial component of poisoning.