Document Type: Original Article

Authors

1 Department of Neurosurgery, Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran

2 Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran

Abstract

Objective: Traumatic spine injuries are seriously important and are associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. The goal of this study is to determine the epidemiology of the traumatic spine injuries in Shahid Beheshti Hospital of Kashan University of Medical Sciences (KAUMS), the main trauma center in Kashan, Iran.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was undertaken on all cases of traumatic spinal injuries that were admitted to Shahid Beheshti hospital of KAUMS from 2014 to 2017. A checklist was used to collect demographic characteristics (age, gender, education, marital) and mechanism of the injury of the spine. According to ICD-10, the level of the injury was detected by diagnostic tests such as radiologic imaging and magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography scans, and also multi-trauma final outcome of the patients with traumatic spine injury (TSI) and rate of the spinal cord injury (SCI), hospital length of stay and surgery treatment was investigated.
Results: The number of patients with traumatic spine injuries was 986. Among this batch, 77% were males. The mean age of the patients was 39.5 years. Most injuries occurred in the age group of 15 to 30 years. Traffic accident was the most common mechanism of the trauma (35.2%) followed by the falls (26.95%) motorcycle accident (17.9%), assault by a sharp object or an unspecified object (10.13%) and other reasons (5.6%). The most common site of injury was in lumbar section (24.41%). Patients with traffic accident injury had the longest hospitalization. The rate of SCI was 2.63% and the rate of mortality was 2.3%.
Conclusion: The TSI is an important and serious public health problem and a major cause of disability. Understanding the epidemiology can help us contrive appropriate preventative measures.

Keywords

Main Subjects

1. Moradi-Lakeh M, Rasouli MR, Vaccaro AR, Saadat S, Zarei MR, Rahimi-Movaghar V. Burden of traumatic spine fractures in Tehran, Iran. BMC Public Health 2011; 11: 789. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-789.
2. Haddadi K, Yousefzadeh F. Epidemiology of Traumatic Spinal Injury in north of Iran: a prospective Study. Iran
J Neurosurg 2016; 1(4): 11-4. doi: 10.18869/acadpub.irjns.1.4.11.
3. Rahimi-Movaghar V, Saadat S, Rasouli MR, Ganji S, Ghahramani M, Zarei MR, et al. Prevalence of spinal cord injury in Tehran, Iran. J Spinal Cord Med 2009; 32(4): 428-31. doi: 10.1080/10790268.2009.11754572.
4. Furlan JC, Sakakibara BM, Miller WC, Krassioukov AV. Global incidence and prevalence of traumatic spinal cord
injury. Can J Neurol Sci 2013; 40(4): 456-64.
5. Heidari P, Zarei MR, Rasouli MR, Vaccaro AR, Rahimi-Movaghar V. Spinal fractures resulting from traumatic injuries. Chin J Traumatol 2010; 13(1): 3-9.
6. Lee BB, Cripps RA, Fitzharris M, Wing PC. The global map for traumatic spinal cord injury epidemiology: update 2011, global incidence rate. Spinal Cord 2014; 52(2): 110-6. doi: 10.1038/sc.2012.158.
7. Ackery A, Tator C, Krassioukov A. A global perspective on spinal cord injury epidemiology. J Neurotrauma2004; 21(10): 1355-70. doi: 10.1089/neu.2004.21.1355.
8. Rasouli MR, Nouri M, Rahimi-Movaghar V. Spinal cord injuries from road traffic crashes in southeastern Iran. Chin J Traumatol 2007; 10(6): 323-6.
9. Fakharian E, Mohammadzadeh M, Saberi HR, Fazel MR, Rejali M, Akbari H, et al. Spinal injury resulting from car accident: focus to prevention. Asian J Neurosurg 2017; 12(2): 180-4. doi: 10.4103/1793-5482.152110.
10. Knutsdottir S, Thorisdottir H, Sigvaldason K, Jonsson H Jr, Bjornsson A, Ingvarsson P. Epidemiology of traumatic
spinal cord injuries in Iceland from 1975 to 2009. Spinal Cord 2012; 50(2): 123-6. doi: 10.1038/sc.2011.105.
11. Karbakhsh M, Zandi NS, Rouzrokh M, Zarei MR. Injury epidemiology in Kermanshah: the National Trauma Project
in Islamic Republic of Iran. East Mediterr Health J 2009;15(1): 57-64.
12. Davoodabadi A, Yazdani AR, Sayyah M, Mirzadeh Javaheri M. Trauma epidemiology and its consequences in victims
referred to Kashan Trauma Center during 2007-8. Feyz Journal of Kashan University of Medical Sciences 2011;14(5): 500-5.
13. Gopaul CD, Singh-Gopaul A, Sutherland JM, Rostant L, Ebi KL, Chadee DD. The epidemiology of fatal road traffic
Collisions in Trinidad and Tobago, West Indies (2000-2011). Glob Health Action 2016; 9: 32518. doi: 10.3402/gha.v9.32518.
14. Khorshidi A, Ainy E, Hashemi Nazari SS, Soori H. Temporal patterns of road traffic injuries in Iran. Arch Trauma Res
2016; 5(2): e27894. doi: 10.5812/atr.27894.
15. Yousefzadeh Chabok S, Safaee M, Alizadeh A, Ahmadi Dafchahi M, Taghinnejadi O, Koochakinejad L. Epidemiology of traumatic spinal injury: a descriptive study. Acta Med Iran 2010; 48(5): 308-11.
16. Wang H, Zhang Y, Xiang Q, Wang X, Li C, Xiong H, et al. Epidemiology of traumatic spinal fractures: experience
from medical university-affiliated hospitals in Chongqing,China, 2001-2010. J Neurosurg Spine 2012; 17(5): 459-68.
doi: 10.3171/2012.8.spine111003.
17. Zargar M, Karbakhsh M, Zarei MR, Moez Ardalan K. Patterns of assault: experience from an urban hospitalbased
study in a developing country. Iran Red Crescent Med J 2004; 6(2): 50-4.
18. Zargar M, Modaghegh MH, Rezaishiraz H. Urban injuries in Tehran: demography of trauma patients and evaluation
of trauma care. Injury 2001; 32(8): 613-7.
19. Moini M, Rezaishiraz H, Zafarghandi MR. Characteristics and outcome of injured patients treated in urban trauma centers in Iran. J Trauma 2000; 48(3): 503-7.
20. Modaghegh MH, Roudsari BS, Sajadehchi A. Prehospital trauma care in Tehran: potential areas for improvement.
Prehosp Emerg Care 2002; 6(2): 218-23.
21. Amin A, Bernard J, Nadarajah R, Davies N, Gow F, Tucker S. Spinal injuries admitted to a specialist centre over a
5-year period: a study to evaluate delayed admission. Spinal Cord 2005; 43(7): 434-7. doi: 10.1038/sj.sc.3101734.
22. Hagen EM, Eide GE, Rekand T, Gilhus NE, Gronning M. A 50-year follow-up of the incidence of traumatic spinal cord
injuries in Western Norway. Spinal Cord 2010; 48(4): 313-8. doi: 10.1038/sc.2009.133.
23. Ning GZ, Wu Q, Li YL, Feng SQ. Epidemiology of traumatic spinal cord injury in Asia: a systematic review. J Spinal Cord Med 2012; 35(4): 229-39. doi:10.1179/2045772312y.0000000021.
24. Fakharian E, Tabesh H, Masoud SA. An epidemiologic study on spinal injuries in Kashan. Journal of Guilan University of Medical Sciences 2004; 13(49): 79-85. [In Persian].
25. Saadat S, Eghbali A, Vaccaro AR, Sharif-Alhoseini M, Rahimi-Movaghar V. Blunt traumatic cervical spine fractures in Iran. Surg Sci 2011; 2(8): 407-13. doi: 10.4236/ss.2011.28089.
26. Clayton JL, Harris MB, Weintraub SL, Marr AB, Timmer J, Stuke LE, et al. Risk factors for cervical spine injury. Injury
2012; 43(4): 431-5. doi: 10.1016/j.injury.2011.06.022.
27. Fazel MR, Fakharian E, Mahdian M, Mohammadzadeh M, Salehfard L, Ramezani M. Demographic profiles of adult
trauma during a 5 year period (2007-2011) in Kashan,IR Iran. Arch Trauma Res 2012; 1(2): 63-6. doi: 10.5812/
atr.6770.