Document Type : Original Article
1 Student Research Committee, School of Dentistry, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran
2 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Dentistry, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran
3 Department of Oral Medicine, School of Dentistry, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran
Objective: Narcotic and alcohol use are recognized as the two important underlying factors in all types of trauma. In this study, the prevalence of opium consumption was investigated in traumatic patients who referred to Shahid Rahnemoon hospital in Yazd in 2018.
Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 252 patients with trauma admitted to Shahid Rahnemoon Hospital from October to December 2018 were studied. In order to collect the data, a checklist was administered including the patients’ demographic information (age and gender), opium consumption, location of trauma, day of occurrence of trauma and cause of trauma.
Results: The mean of patients’ age was 31.33 ± 19.46 years ranging from 2 to 90 years and 71.4% of them were males. The most common causes of trauma included accidents with motor vehicles (56%), falls from height (19.8%), and intimate partner violence (6%), respectively. Regarding opium consumption, 87.3% of patients did not use it, while 10.3% consumed opium. Narcotic abuse was significantly different with regard to the patients’ gender (P = 0.000) and age (P = 0.000).
Conclusion: Opium consumption increases the risk of error and accident while driving. People on methadone treatment also show high-risk behaviors and are at greater risk of accidents.
2. Azizi A, Abdoli G. Mortality rates in Kermanshah province – 2000, J Kermanshah Univ Med Sci. 2003 ; 7(3):e81256.
3. Mackersie RC. Field triage, and the fragile supply of “optimal resources” for the care of the injured patient. Prehosp Emerg Care 2006;10(3): 347-50.
4. Batista AM, Ferreira Fde O, Marques LS, Ramos-Jorge ML, Ferreira MC. Risk factors associated with facial fractures.
Braz Oral Res 2012;26(2):119-25.
5. Buchanan J, Colquhoun A, Friedlander L, Evans S, Whitley B, Thomson M. Maxillofacial fractures at Waikato Hospital, New Zealand: 1989 to 2000. N Z Med J 2005;118(1217):U1529.
6. Chrcanovic BR. Factors influencing the incidence of maxillofacial fractures. Oral Maxillofac Surg 2012;16(1):3-17.
7. Roccia F, Bianchi F, Zavattero E, Tanteri G, Ramieri G. Characteristics of maxillofacial trauma in females: a retrospective analysis of 367 patients. J Craniomaxillofac Surg 2010;38(4):314-9.
8. Longo MC, Hunter CE, Lokan RJ, White JM, White MA. The prevalence of alcohol, cannabinoids, benzodiazepines
and stimulants amongst injured drivers and their role in driver culpability: part ii: the relationship between drug
prevalence and drug concentration, and driver culpability. Accid Anal Prev 2000;32(5):623-32.
9. Majdzadeh R, Feiz-Zadeh A, Rajabpour Z, Motevalian A, Hosseini M, Abdollahi M, et al. Opium consumption and
the risk of traffic injuries in regular users: a case-crossover study in an emergency department. Traffic Inj Prev 2009;10(4):325-9.
10. Pournaghash Tehrani S. Drugs And Behavior. Tehran 2013. Page 4-78
11. Schuur JD, Hsia RY, Burstin H, Schull MJ, Pines JM. Quality measurement in the emergency department: past and
future. Health Aff (Millwood) 2013;32(12):2129-38.
12. London JA, Mock CN, Quansah RE, Abantanga FA, Jurkovich GJ. Priorities for improving hospital-based trauma care in an African city. J Trauma 2001;51(4):747-53.
13. Chandra Shekar BR, Reddy C. A five-year retrospective statistical analysis of maxillofacial injuries in patients
admitted and treated at two hospitals of Mysore city. Indian J Dent Res 2008;19(4):304-8
14. Lee JH, Cho BK, Park WJ. A 4-year retrospective study of facial fractures on Jeju, Korea. J Craniomaxillofac Surg
15. Lone P, Singh AP, Kour I, Kumar M. A 2-year retrospective analysis of facial injuries in patients treated at department of oral and maxillofacial surgery, IGGDC, Jammu, India. Natl J Maxillofac Surg 2014;5(2):149-52.
16. Paes JV, de Sa Paes FL, Valiati R, de Oliveira MG, Pagnoncelli RM. Retrospective study of prevalence of face fractures in southern Brazil. Indian J Dent Res 2012;23(1):80-6.
17. Zargar M, Modaghegh MH, Rezaishiraz H. Urban injuries in Tehran: demography of trauma patients and evaluation
of trauma care. Injury 2001;32(8):613-7.
18. Taghipour H, Panahi F, Khoshmohabat H, Moharamzadeh Y, Abasi A, Hojjatifirozabadi N. Injury severity and causes of death Autopsy deals cost incurred due to theCar Accidents. Shaheed Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences. 2010;17(5):358-64.
19. Kadkhodaie MH. Three-year review of facial fractures at a teaching hospital in northern Iran. Br J Oral Maxillofac
20. Ellis E 3rd, Moos KF, el-Attar A. Ten years of mandibular fractures: an analysis of 2,137 cases. Oral Surg Oral Med
Oral Pathol 1985;59(2):120-9.
21. Al Ahmed HE, Jaber MA, Abu Fanas SH, Karas M. The pattern of maxillofacial fractures in Sharjah, United Arab
Emirates: a review of 230 cases. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2004;98(2):166-70.
22. Adekeye EO. The pattern of fractures of the facial skeleton in Kaduna, Nigeria. A survey of 1,447 cases. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1980;49(6):491-5.
23. Pandey S, Roychoudhury A, Bhutia O, Singhal M, Sagar S, Pandey RM. Study of the pattern of maxillofacial fractures
seen at a tertiary care hospital in north India. J Maxillofac Oral Surg 2015;14(1):32-9.
24. Ungari C, Filiaci F, Riccardi E, Rinna C, Iannetti G. Etiology and incidence of zygomatic fracture: a retrospective study
related to a series of 642 patients. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2012;16(11):1559-62.
25. Potenza BM, Hoyt DB, Coimbra R, Fortlage D, Holbrook T, Hollingsworth-Fridlund P. The epidemiology of serious
and fatal injury in San Diego County over an 11-year period. J Trauma 2004;56(1):68-75.
26. argar M, Khaji A, Karbakhsh M, Zarei MR. Epidemiology study of facial injuries during a 13 month of trauma registry
in Tehran. Indian J Med Sci 2004;58(3):109-14.
27. Yaghubi AA, Cyrus A, Azizabadi-Farahani M, Amini M, Noori GR, Gudarzi D, et al. Epidemiolgical Assessment of Trauma Patients Referring to Arak Vali-Asr Hospital. Journal of Rescue and Relief 2010;2(1):1-9.
28. Barbone F, McMahon AD, Davey PG, Morris AD, Reid IC, McDevitt DG, et al. Association of road-traffic accidents
with benzodiazepine use. Lancet 1998; 352(9137):1331-6.
29. Elvik R. Risk of road accident associated with the use of drugs: a systematic review and meta-analysis of evidence
from epidemiological studies. Accid Anal Prev 2013;60:254-67.
30. Ramaekers JG, Berghaus G, van Laar M, Drummer OH. Dose related risk of motor vehicle crashes after cannabis
use. Drug Alcohol Depend 2004;73(2):109-19.
31. Vitale S, van de Mheen D. Illicit drug use and injuries: A review of emergency room studies. Drug Alcohol Depend
32. Gjerde H, Normann PT, Christophersen AS, Samuelsen SO, Morland J. Alcohol, psychoactive drugs and fatal road
traffic accidents in Norway: a case-control study. Accid Anal Prev 2011;43(3):1197-203.
33. Al-Abdallat IM, Al Ali R, Hudaib AA, Salameh GA, Salameh RJ, Idhair AK. The prevalence of alcohol and psychotropic
drugs in fatalities of road-traffic accidents in Jordan during2008-2014. J Forensic Leg Med 2016;39:130-4.
34. Canfield DV, Hordinsky J, Millett DP, Endecott B, Smith D. Prevalence of drugs and alcohol in fatal civil aviation
accidents between 1994 and 1998. Aviat Space Environ Med 2001;72(2):120-4.
35. Carfora A, Campobasso CP, Cassandro P, Petrella R, Borriello R. Alcohol and drugs use among drivers injured in
road accidents in Campania (Italy): A 8-years retrospective analysis. Forensic Sci Int 2018;288:291-296.
36. Christophersen AS, Gjerde H. Prevalence of alcohol and drugs among car and van drivers killed in road accidents
in Norway: an overview from 2001 to 2010. Traffic Inj Prev 2014;15(6):523-31.
37. Holmgren P, Holmgren A, Ahlner J. Alcohol and drugs in drivers fatally injured in traffic accidents in Sweden during
the years 2000-2002. Forensic Sci Int 2005;151(1):11-7.
38. O’Malley PM, Johnston LD. Unsafe driving by high school seniors: national trends from 1976 to 2001 in tickets and
accidents after use of alcohol, marijuana and other illegal drugs. J Stud Alcohol 2003;64(3):305-12.
39. Pelicao FS, Peres MD, Pissinate JF, de Paula DM, de Faria M, Nakamura-Palacios EM, et al. Predominance of alcohol
and illicit drugs among traffic accidents fatalities in an urban area of Brazil. Traffic Inj Prev 2016;17(7):663-7.
40. Ricci G, Majori S, Mantovani W, Zappaterra A, Rocca G, Buonocore F. Prevalence of alcohol and drugs in urine
of patients involved in road accidents. J Prev Med Hyg 2008;49(2):89-95.
41. Rodriguez NN, Dalri MC, Alonso Castillo MM, Garcia KS. Accidents and injuries due to consumption of alcohol or
drugs in patients treated at an emergency room. Rev Lat Am Enfermagem 2010;18 Spec No:521-8.
42. Bakhtiyari M, Soori H, Ainy E, Salehi M, Mehmandar MR. The survey of the role of humans’ risk factors in the severity of road traffic injuries on urban and rural roads. Safety promotion and injury prevention (Tehran) 2014;2(3):245-252.
43. Assari S, Moghani Lankarani M, Dejman M, Farnia M, Alasvand R, Sehat M, et al. Drug Use among Iranian Drivers Involved in Fatal Car Accidents. Front Psychiatry 2014;5:69.
44. Afshar A, Asadzadeh M, Kargar H, Aghdashi MM, Mirzatolooei F. Opium and opioid abuse in orthopedic inpatients: a cross sectional study in Urmia University of Medical Sciences. Acta Med Iran 2012;50(1):66-9.
45. Tabibi Z. The influence of addiction on aberrant driving behaviors and traffic safety. Applied Research Psychological