Document Type: Case Report

Authors

Medical Toxicology Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

Abstract

Objective: Tramadol is a synthetic analgesic with two mechanisms. The opioid and non-opioid mechanisms are responsible for tramadol side effects. Non-opioid side effects of tramadol are due to the reuptake inhibitions of serotonin and norepinephrine. Some of the side effects include anaphylactoid reactions, CNS depression, hypoglycemia, hypotension, respiratory depression, seizures, and serotonin syndrome. Seizure may happen in therapeutic doses. If the frequency of tramadol seizures increases, ischemic brain injury and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy can be induced.
Case Report: We report a young man with a history of tramadol abuse that was admitted with status epilepticus in Imam Reza hospital in Mashhad, Iran. Due to his altered mental status, he was intubated and antiepileptic agents were prescribed. He was transferred to ICU. After regaining consciousness, he was extubated and with the prescription of rehabilitation support he was discharged.
Conclusion: Tramadol is a synthetic analgesic agent with less potential for dependence. It is important to mention that the overdose of this drug is common. This drug has two mechanisms. This paper reports a case that developed generalized tonic clonic seizures due to tramadol and hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. With adequate treatment and supportive care, patient’s mental status improves and he/she can be discharged.

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