Document Type : Original Article


1 Forensic Medicine Department, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

2 Tehran Legal Medicine Organization, Tehran, Iran

3 School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran


Objective: Determination of victim’s clothes in gunshot wounds is important due to the necessity of immediate workup in the emergency room as well as the legal aspects of cases. The aim of this study is to evaluate the importance of victim’s clothes in gunshot wounds referred to autopsy hall of legal medicine bureau of Tehran, Iran from 2014 to 2017.
Methods: In this analytical comparative study, 202 consecutive cadavers of gunshot victims, referred to Tehran Legal Medical Hall from 2014 to 2017, were enrolled and the effect of shotgun and gunshot wound were determined and compared. Data were collected using a researcher-made questionnaire. The significance level of the tests was considered as P < 0.05. Spearman correlation coefficient and chi-square tests were used accordingly. The data were analyzed using SPSS software version 22.
Results: In this study, all women were killed by gunshot. Also, all of the 26 people who were killed by shotgun were men. The mean of age only in males was 39-48 years for shotgun, and 29-38 years in both genders for gunshot. Evaluation of their clothes in the emergency room and autopsy hall was helpful in 70% of cases in order to determine shot distance and type of gun (P = 0.0001). Conversely, we did not observe a significant difference between sex (P = 0.082) and the pattern of death (P = 0.211).
Conclusion: Based on the obtained results, it seems that some characteristics of victim’s clothes may be useful to differentiate shotgun and gunshot.


Main Subjects

1. Najari F, Mostafazadeh B, Bahrami M, Najari D. Causes and frequency of physical trauma in pregnancy. Tehran University Medical Journal 2019; 77(3): 166-71. [In Persian].
2. Knight B. Forensic Pathology. 2nd ed. London: Edward Arnold Ltd; 1996. p. 253-4.
3. DiMaio D, DiMaio VJ. Forensic Pathology. 2nd ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press LCC; 2001.
4. Miller M, Azrael D, Hemenway D. Firearm availability and unintentional firearm deaths, suicide, and homicide among 5-14 year olds. J Trauma 2002; 52(2): 267-74. doi:10.1097/00005373-200202000-00011.
5. Akhlaghi M, Afshar M, Barooni SH, Taghadosi Nejad F, Tofighi Zavareh H, Ghorbani M. General Legal Medicine and Toxicity. Tehran: University of Medical Sciences Press;2009.
6. Schmeling A, Strauch H, Rothschild MA. Female suicides in Berlin with the use of firearms. Forensic Sci Int 2001; 124(2-3): 178-81. doi: 10.1016/s0379-0738(01)00594-1.
7. Sidel VW. The international arms trade and its impact on health. BMJ 1995; 311(7021): 1677-80. doi: 10.1136/bmj.311.7021.1677.
8. Coupland RM. The effect of weapons on health. Lancet 1996; 347(8999): 450-1. doi: 10.1016/s0140 6736(96)90017-3.
9. Bowyer GW. Management of small fragment wounds in modern warfare: a return to Hunterian principles? Ann R Coll Surg Engl 1997; 79(3): 175-82.
10. Sellier KG, Kneubuehl BP. Wound Ballistics: And the Scientific Background. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 1994.
11. Riehl JT, Connolly K, Haidukewych G, Koval K. Fractures due to gunshot wounds: do retained bullet fragments affect union? Iowa Orthop J 2015; 35: 55-61.
12. Ali SA, Tahir SM, Makhdoom A, Shaikh AR, Siddique AJ. Aerial firing and stray bullet injuries: a rising tide. Iran Red Crescent Med J 2015; 17(4): e26179. doi: 10.5812/ircmj.17(4)2015.26179.
13. Matoso RI, Freire AR, Santos LS, Daruge Junior E, Rossi AC, Prado FB. Comparison of gunshot entrance morphologies caused by. 40-caliber Smith & Wesson, 380-caliber, and 9-mm Luger bullets: a finite element analysis study. PLoS One 2014; 9(10): e111192. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0111192.
14. Najari F, Imam-Hadi MA, Forghani M, Najari D. Investigation of Bullet Shooting Rresults in Referral Death to the Kahrizak Hall of Legal Medicine Organization from 2010 to 2014. Iranian Journal of Forensic Medicine 2018; 24(1): 53-9. doi: 10.30699/epub.sjfm.24.1.53. [Persian].
15. Iflazoglu N, Ureyen O, Oner OZ, Tusat M, Akcal MA. Complications and risk factors for mortality in penetrating abdominal firearm injuries: analysis of 120 cases. Int J Clin Exp Med 2015; 8(4): 6154-62.
16. Lustenberger T, Inaba K, Schnüriger B, Barmparas G, Eberle BM, Lam L, et al. Gunshot injuries in the elderly: patterns and outcomes. A national trauma databank analysis. World J Surg 2011; 35(3): 528-34. doi: 10.1007/s00268-010-0920-7.