Document Type: Original Article


1 Department of Emergency Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

2 Department of Emergency Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical sciences, Mashhad, Iran

3 Neuroscience Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

4 Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

5 Clinical Research Unit, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran


Objective: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) following systemic and chronic hypertension is one of the main causes of acute stroke leading to disability and death. Identifying the risk factors in ICH patients can be effective in reducing bleeding and the rates of mortality and disability in these patients. This study was carried out to investigate the factors associated with ICH.
Methods: A total of 134 patients with chronic systemic hypertension who had ICH were enrolled in this study. The amount of ICH was measured through computed tomography (CT scan). The subjects were divided into two groups of high (>30 mL) and low (Results: The mean age of the subjects was 66.04± 14.15 years, and 71 (52.99%) individuals were females. The mean volume of ICH was 24.47 mL, with 29.10% of the subjects (39 patients) having >30 mL and 70.90% (95 patients) having Conclusion: The results of this study showed that less than 30% of the subjects had high volumes of bleeding, and the co-existence of IHD was considered as a strong independent risk factor affecting the volume of ICH associated with worse prognosis.


Main Subjects

1. An SJ, Kim TJ, Yoon BW. Epidemiology, risk factors, and clinical features of intracerebral hemorrhage: an update. J Stroke 2017; 19(1): 3-10. doi: 10.5853/jos.2016.00864.
2. Khealani BA, Wasay M. The burden of stroke in Pakistan. Int J Stroke 2008; 3(4): 293-6. doi: 10.1111/j.1747-4949.2008.00214.x.
3. Sacco RL. Pathogenesis, classification, and epidemiology of cerebrovascular disease. In: Rowland LP, eds. Merrit’s Textbook of Neurology. Lea & Febiger; 1995. p. 227.
4. Iniesta J, Corral J, González-Conejero R, Piqueras C, Vicente V. Polymorphisms of platelet adhesive receptors: do they play a role in primary intracerebral hemorrhage? Cerebrovasc Dis 2003; 15(1-2): 51-5. doi: 10.1159/000067126.
5. Ghiasian M, Daneshyar s, Asna-Ashari F, Bagheri Z. Consequences of intracranial hemorrhage and its effective factors. Journal of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences 2019; 29(174): 42-52. [In Persian].
6. Hong KS, Bang OY, Kang DW, Yu KH, Bae HJ, Lee JS, et al. Stroke statistics in Korea: part I. Epidemiology and risk factors: a report from the Korean stroke society and clinical research center for stroke. J Stroke 2013; 15(1): 2-20. doi:10.5853/jos.2013.15.1.2.
7. Krishnamurthi RV, Moran AE, Forouzanfar MH, Bennett DA, Mensah GA, Lawes CM, et al. The global burden of hemorrhagic stroke: a summary of findings from the GBD 2010 study. Glob Heart 2014; 9(1): 101-6. doi: 10.1016/j.gheart.2014.01.003.
8. Sia SF, Tan KS, Waran V. Primary intracerebral haemorrhage in Malaysia: in-hospital mortality and outcome in patients from a hospital based registry. Med J Malaysia 2007; 62(4): 308-12.
9. Qureshi AI, Tuhrim S, Broderick JP, Batjer HH, Hondo H, Hanley DF. Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage. Engl J Med 2001; 344(19): 1450-60. doi: 10.1056/nejm200105103441907.
10. Wasay M, Yousuf A, Lal D, Awan S. Predictors of the intracerebral hemorrhage volume in hypertensive
patients. Cerebrovasc Dis Extra 2011; 1(1): 1-5. doi:10.1159/000323270.
11. Flaherty ML, Tao H, Haverbusch M, Sekar P, Kleindorfer D, Kissela B, et al. Warfarin use leads to larger intracerebral hematomas. Neurology 2008; 71(14): 1084-9. doi:10.1212/01.wnl.0000326895.58992.27.
12. Nikseresht A, Azin HJ. Hypertension-related primary cerebral hemorrhage in patients referring to hospitals affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Journal of Medical Research (JMR) 2004; 2(2): 40-7. [In Persian].
13. Chen G, Ping L, Zhou S, Liu W, Liu L, Zhang D, et al. Early prediction of death in acute hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage. Exp Ther Med 2016; 11(1): 83-8. doi: 10.3892/etm.2015.2892.
14. Zia E, Engström G, Svensson PJ, Norrving B, Pessah- Rasmussen H. Three-year survival and stroke
recurrence rates in patients with primary intracerebral hemorrhage. Stroke 2009; 40(11): 3567-73. doi: 10.1161/strokeaha.109.556324.
15. Arboix A, Miguel M, Císcar E, García-Eroles L, Massons J, Balcells M. Cardiovascular risk factors in patients aged 85 or older with ischemic stroke. Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2006; 108(7): 638-43. doi: 10.1016/j.clineuro.2005.10.010